CBD and cancer studies

CBD and Cancer Studies – Summarized Exhaustive List

There have been many studies of CBD and cancer – this is clear from the long list of summarized  studies on this page – and this is by no means a complete list.

As you will see, cannabidiol (CBD) has clearly been shown as an anti-tumor agent. CBD limits blood flow to tumors, restores tumor cell natural death, opens multiple pathways for tumor cell death, does not adversely affect healthy cells, and does all this with no psychotropic side effects (“getting high”).

If you are not familiar with CBD or cannabinoids, check out this article that gives a good, general explanation and overview.

Summaries of each study are brief and are written to be as accurate as possible as to what the study was about, from the laymen’s perspective.

This list is divided into several sub-headings based on cancer type. You can go directly to the cancer type of interest in the links below.










 


CBD is an abbreviation for Cannabidiol: one of many cannabinoids.


 

CBD and General Cancer



Metastasis: development of secondary malignant growths at a distance from a primary site.


Cannabidiol reaction to protein examined for possible tumor anti-metastasis.
Nov 2017 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28888984]

Brief summary:

This study looked at a specific Gs protein receptor (GPR12) and tested to see if CBD had any active participation in reacting with it.

It was shown that CBD did indeed play a significant role and the conclusion was that cannabidiol is a promising therapeutic agent for cancer, especially for blocking cancer metastasis (development of secondary malignant growths at a distance from a primary site).


end study summary



Cannabinoids – a new weapon against cancer?
Dec 2016 | Review Paper | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28100841]

Brief summary:

This paper addresses multiple studies of cannabinoids in the fight against cancer. Experiments on cancer cell lines show that both in lab dish conditions as well as in animals, all types of cannabinoids inhibit tumor cell growth and inhibit the ability of the cancer cells to metastasize.

The main mechanism for this is tumor cell apoptosis (normal cell death). Some caution was given that cannabinoids may suppress the immune system and urged the need to explore this further.


end study summary



In vivo: (of a process) performed or taking place in a living organism

In vitro: (of a process) performed or taking place in a test tube, culture dish, or elsewhere outside a living organism


In vitro and in vivo efficacy of non-psychoactive cannabidiol in neuroblastoma.
Mar 2016 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27022310]

Brief summary:

This addressed CBD effects on neuroblastoma, the most common cancer in children. Exploration was deemed to be relevant since cannabinoids were shown to have apoptotic and antiangiogenic effects. Investigation included both lab dish and in human experiments of both CBD and THC on cell functions.

Results showed that both compounds, THC and CBD had anti-tumor properties, but CBD was the more active. CBD reduced the viability of tumor cells and induced apoptosis (normal cell death). Plus, CBD caused an increase in an activator that moderates cell death (activated caspase 3).

The conclusion was that CBD has anti-tumor properties with no psychoactive side effects and that results warranted exploitation of cannabidiol as an anticancer drug.


end study summary



CBD as potential anticancer drug
Feb 2013 | Review Paper | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22506672]

Brief summary:

The paper focuses on how effective cannabidiol is on several types of cancer as a therapeutic agent, or as an anticancer agent. CBD was singled out because of its non-psychoactive properties. Many different studies and papers were referenced in this paper.

Conclusions were limited in this paper, although many of the papers referenced concluded positively for CBD as an anti-tumor agent. It did indicate that cannabinoids in general have a bright future with respect to their anticancer benefits.


end study summary



The inhibitory effects of CBD on systemic malignant tumors.
Apr 2013 | Review Paper | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23544909]

Brief summary:

This paper references other studies and brings out some interesting facts. Namely, that cannabidiol decreased tumor growth in pulmonary malignancies; CBD increases the expression of inflammation (immune system response) activators within cancer cells.

It also presented evidence that tumor cell apoptosis (normal cell death) was accentuated and similar inhibited tumor growth was seen in breast tissue malignancies.

No conclusions were presented.


end study summary



angiogenesis: the development of new blood vessels


CBD inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms.
Nov 2012 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22624859]

Brief summary:

Since many previous studies had concluded that cannabinoids had properties that killed cancer cells and stopped them from spreading, this study wanted to examine cannabidiol (CBD) effects on tumor growth and especially its effect on blood flow to the tumors (anti-angiogenesis).

The approach was to evaluate CBD human vein endothelial cells, looking at the cell growth and health. This was done in various experiments involving lab dish (in vitro) and in animal subjects.

Results and conclusions were that CBD inhibited migration and new tumor cell growth and inhibited blood flow to the tumor cells by multiple mechanisms. The hypothesis that cannabidiol as an effective anticancer agent was supported.


end study summary



neuropathy: disease or dysfunction of one or more peripheral nerves


Cannabidiol may help relieve chemotherapy related neuropathy pain.
Oct 2011 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249239/]

Brief summary:

CBD may be a treatment to reduce pain in those getting the chemotherapy drug paclitaxel. Results of this study showed cannabidiol has pain- and inflammation-reducing effects, while avoiding the psychoactive side effects.

In female mice, cannabidiol reduces paclitaxel-induced neuropathy, which is a potentially serious complication.

Paclitaxel, commonly used in the treatment of advanced breast or ovarian cancer, can cause neuropathy, or nerve damage, leading to symptoms like pain, numbness, or tingling. This type of pain can prevent patients from getting their full course of chemotherapy.


end study summary



Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain.
Feb 2010 | Clinical Trial | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19896326]

Brief summary:

This trial involved 177 total patients with severe pain from advanced cancer who also had chronic opioid use, but not getting pain relief from opioids. Two extracts and a placebo were administered. One extract was a combination of THC:CBD; another was a THC extract.

Using a numerical rating scale for pain, the results heavily favored the THC:CBD extract (and improvement of -1.37 vs. -0.69). “Twice as many patients taking THC:CBD showed a reduction of more than 30% from baseline pain NRS score when compared with placebo” – direct quote.

There were no significant issues found with THC:CBD vs THC or placebo when it came to sleep quality or nausea scores. “This study shows that THC:CBD extract is effective for relief of pain in patients with advanced cancer pain not fully relieved by strong opioids.” – direct quote.


end study summary



CBD inhibits cancer cell invasion via upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1.
Nov 2009 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19914218]

Brief summary:

The study was to evaluate if cannabidiol would be anti-carcinogenic as other cannabinoids had been found to be (reference to THC). They were looking at cancer cell invasion and used an assay to assess the vasculogenic activity of tumor cells (Matrigel assay) to examine this.

They found that CBD impaired invasion of human cervical cancer and human lung cancer cells. Two additional studies showed inhibition of lung metastasis in mice treated with CBD.

The conclusion was that studies provided a “novel mechanism underlying the anti-invasive action of cannabidiol and imply its use as a therapeutic option for the treatment of highly invasive cancers”.


end study summary


 

CBD and Endocrine Cancer



apoptosis: the death of cells that occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism’s growth or development


A comparative study on CBD-induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes and EL-4 thymoma cells.
May 2008 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18387516]

Brief summary:

The basis of this study was the demonstration that CBD induced apoptosis (normal cell death) in both normal cells and cancer cells, but cancer cells were more sensitive.

And so the study looked at effectiveness of CBD to induce apoptosis between normal thymocytes (thymus gland cells) and thymoma (thymus cancer) cells. Both cells had a marked increase in apoptosis based on concentration and time.

They found that CBD induced apoptosis in both types of cells. CBD affected apoptosis with more potency in the normal thymocytes than in the thymoma cells, but apoptosis occurred earlier in the thymoma (cancer) cells.


end study summary


CBD and Kaposi Sarcoma



CBD inhibits growth and induces programmed cell death in kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infected endothelium.
Jun 2012 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23264851]

Brief summary:

This study investigated the effects of CBD on the infection of endothelial cells with Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) – including growth and apoptosis of the cells.

The efficiency in which KSHV infected the cells was not changed by CBD introduction, but it did reduce proliferation (spreading) of the cells and induced apoptosis (normal cell death) of the KSHV infected cells.

The study concluded that evidence supports further examination of CBD as a treatment for Kaposi sarcoma.


end study summary


CBD and Leukemia



Cannabidiol reduces leukemic cell size – but is it important?
Mar 2017 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28392768]

Brief summary:

With respect to leukemia, this study wanted to further analyze the effect of cannabidiol on lymphoblastic disease post-treatment recovery, after the initial cancer cell destruction. Cannabidiol was shown to reduce cell viability incompletely, and slowed the cell cycle.

“The remaining viable cells that were cultured in nutrient rich conditions post-treatment were able to proliferate, but did not recover to control cell numbers. However, the proportion of viable cells that were gated as small, increased in response to cannabidiol and normally sized cells decreased. “ – direct quote.

This proportion of small cells persisted in the recovery period and did not return to basal levels. Cells grown in normal oxygen levels were seen as more resistant to CBD.

Cannabidiol did cause a reduction in cell size and this persisted post-treatment. However, resistance to cannabidiol under normal oxygen conditions for these cells would imply that CBD may not be useful in the clinic as an anti-leukemic agent.


end study summary



CBD-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells: A novel role of cannabidiol in the regulation of p22phox and Nox4 expression.
Sep 2006 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16754784]

Brief summary:

The effects of cannabidiol on causing the death of leukemia cells was examined in this study.

Exposure of CBD showed reduction in cell viability and induction of apoptosis via cannabinoid receptor CB2. Possible crosstalk between natural and external normal-cell-death (apoptotic) pathways was suggested.

The study noted – “The role of the mitochondria was further suggested as exposure to cannabidiol led to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c.” – (suggesting another cancer cell destruction path.)

Yet another possible destructive element was that cannabidiol exposure led to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. (ROS production in cells has been shown to cause cell degradation and cell death.)

Of note in this study was that CBD induced apoptosis could be blocked by introduction of ROS scavengers – these would be the antioxidants we think of as beneficial – suggesting that antioxidants may slow down or block the effects of CBD as a cancer cell killer.

The conclusion of this study was that cannabidiol may be a novel and highly selective treatment for leukemia.


end study summary


CBD and Lung Cancer



COX-2 and PPAR-γ confer cannabidiol-induced apoptosis of human lung cancer cells.
Jan 2013 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23220503]

Brief summary:

Almost all of the CBD studies looking into cannabidiol take the anti-tumor properties of CBD as a given, because so much research has been done with results reaching this conclusion.

This study wants to uncover the mechanisms involved with CBD and cancer cell death.

All in all, the conclusion of this study was that it (along with their previous study) supported evidence showing CBD has anti-tumor properties.

Some ground was gained in finding the inhibitors and receptors involving the mechanisms of cancer cell apoptosis – “Apoptotic cell death by cannabidiol was suppressed by NS-398 (COX-2 inhibitor), GW9662 (PPAR-γ antagonist), and siRNA targeting COX-2 and PPAR-γ”


end study summary



CBD inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)
Apr 2012 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22198381]

Brief summary:

This study conducted a number of tests on whether CBD and other cannabinoids, including THC, induced ICAM-1 molecule and thereby inducing TIMP-1 matrix – that had already been shown to inhibit cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Tests were conducted using lung cancer cell lines and the reaction just described above was confirmed by this study.


end study summary



Decrease of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 may contribute to the anti-invasive action of CBD on human lung cancer cells.
Oct 2010 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20668920]

Brief summary:

An evaluation was done using human lung cancer cells into the anti-invasive action of CBD.

Results showed that cannabidiol caused a profound inhibition of human lung cancer cell lines. As in other studies, there was noted some reversal of CBD effectiveness by introducing cannabinoid receptor antagonists (proteins that bind to the receptors and block action).

However, the result was that data provided evidence for an unknown mechanism underlying the anti-invasive action of cannabidiol on human lung cancer cells.


end study summary


CBD and Prostate Cancer



In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Plant-Derived Cannabidiol on Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.
Jul 2014 | Lab Study | [http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=47691#.U8FwiKiAQUF]

Brief summary:

Anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects of CBD and CBG (cannabigerol) in fighting prostate cancer, and how this is accomplished, were investigated in this study.

Results of CBG and CBD:THC combinations tested were unclear. But, “results obtained in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines clearly indicate that cannabidiol is a potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth, with significantly lower potency in non-cancer cells.” – direct quote.

It was also noted that CBD may effectively inhibit spheroid formation in cancer stem cells which may contribute to its anti-cancer effect against prostate cancer and its ability to sensitize the cancer to chemotherapy.


end study summary



Towards the use of non-psychoactive cannabinoids for prostate cancer.
Jan 2013 | Article | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22849856]

Brief summary:

This paper showed comprehensive evidence that cannabidiol (CBD) is a potent inhibitor of prostate carcinoma viability in vitro (lab dish conditions). They also showed that the extract was active in vivo (biological conditions), either alone or when administered with drugs commonly used to treat prostate cancer and explored the possible mechanisms behind these anti-tumor effects.


end study summary



Induction of apoptosis by cannabinoids in prostate and colon cancer cells is phosphatase dependent.
Nov 2011 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22110202]

Brief summary:

The aim of this study was to see if the anti-cancer activity was linked to induction of phosphatases, an enzyme that removes a phosphate group from a protein and acts to modulate the activities of the proteins in a cell.

The cannabinoids used for this study were cannabidiol (CBD) and a synthetic cannabinoid WIN (WIN-55,212).

They examined the effects of the cannabinoids on prostate and colon cancer and measured cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, phosphatase activity, and cannabinoid receptor activity.

The results were that both CBD and WIN inhibited cancer cell growth and induced the expression of phosphatases. Only CBD caused cannabinoid receptor induced apoptosis (cancer cell death).

It was concluded that cannabinoid receptor agonists (substance that initiates a response) induce phosphatases and phosphatase-dependent apoptosis in cancer cell lines.


end study summary


CBD and Colon Cancer



Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of CBD.
Apr 2014 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24373545]

Brief summary:

This study analyzed a particular CBD product (unnamed, called CBD-BDS for reference) which contained high concentrations of CBD and its effect on colon cancer. A pure form of CBD was also analyzed.

Proliferation of cancer cells vs healthy cells was evaluated by inducing polyps, tumors with carcinogenic agents in mice. Xenografts of colon cancer in mice were also examined.

Both CBD and CBD-BDS reduced cell expansion in tumors, but not in healthy cells. The effect of CBD-BDS was counteracted by certain antagonists in CB1 and CB2 receptors (meaning it was blocked by other cannabinoid interference). Pure CBD reacted with CB1 receptor only causing a reduced cancer cell proliferation.

In measurements, CBD-BDS had a greater effect than pure CBD on the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. In tissue animal subjects, CBD-BDS reduced lesions and polyps, and tumor growth, in the xenograft cancer models.

The conclusion was that “CBD-BDS attenuates colon carcinogenesis and inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation via CB1 and CB2 receptor activation”. – direct quote.


end study summary



Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer.
Apr 2012 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22231745]

Brief summary:

Basis for the study was that cannabidiol had been shown to be an antioxidant and an intestinal anti-inflammatory. This study looks at the effect of CBD on colon carcinogenesis and possible preventative effects on colon cancer. Using animal subjects, they examined polyp and tumor formation.

It was shown that in colorectal carcinoma cell lines, cannabidiol protected DNA from oxidative damage. Additionally, CBD increased endocannabinoid (cannabinoids produced internally) levels and reduced cancer cell proliferation through multiple mechanisms.

Of special note: this study indicated that CBD may increase our body’s own production of internal cannabinoids, or endocannabinoids.


end study summary



Induction of apoptosis by cannabinoids in prostate and colon cancer cells is phosphatase dependent.
Nov 2011 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22110202]

Brief summary:

The aim of this study was to see if the anti-cancer activity was linked to induction of phosphatases, an enzyme that removes a phosphate group from a protein and acts to modulate the activities of the proteins in a cell.

The cannabinoids used for this study were cannabidiol (CBD) and a synthetic cannabinoid WIN (WIN-55,212).

They examined the effects of the cannabinoids on prostate and colon cancer and measured cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, phosphatase activity, and cannabinoid receptor activity.

The results were that both CBD and WIN inhibited cancer cell growth and induced the expression of phosphatases. Only CBD caused cannabinoid receptor induced apoptosis (cancer cell death).

It was concluded that cannabinoid receptor agonists (substance that initiates a response) induce phosphatases and phosphatase-dependent apoptosis in cancer cell lines.


end study summary


CBD and Breast Cancer



CBDA (cannabidiolic acid) is the precursor for CBD and is the raw plant compound that tuns into cannabidiol (CBD) by decarboxylation (aging or heating).


CBDA mediated selective down-regulation of c-fos in highly aggressive breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.
Jan 2017 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27530354]

Brief summary:

Previously, this team had identified CBDA (cannabidiolic acid) as an inhibitor of the migration of metastatic breast cancer cells. This study digs in deeper to examine possible mechanisms by which this occurs (involving the COX-2 gene).


end study summary



Cannabidiolic acid, a major cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration.
Nov 2012 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22963825]

Brief summary:

On the basis of the reported properties of CBD to reduce the rapid increase of cancer cells, this study looked at whether CBDA (cannabidiolic acid) is biologically active similar to CBD.

Results showed that CBDA inhibits migration of highly invasive human breast cancer cells. This was apparently done through a mechanism involving inhibition of a protein kinase. It was established that activation of certain signaling pathway led to inhibition of the mobility of various cancer cells, including aggressive tumor cells.

This “suggests for the first time that as an active component in the cannabis plant, CBDA offers potential therapeutic modality in the abrogation of cancer cell migration, including aggressive breast cancers.” – direct quote.


end study summary



CBD induces programmed cell death in breast cancer cells by coordinating the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy.
Jul 2011 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21566064]

Brief summary:

This study investigated the exact molecular mechanism through which CBD combats tumor cell growth and migration. They were able to show that cannabidiol induced death of breast cancer cells without involving activation of cannabinoid receptors.

Further investigation showed that CBD produces a chain of reactions within cancer cells to ultimately activate apoptosis (normal cell death) in breast cancer cells.

An intricate interplay was shown between cell death (apoptosis) and the normal process for the destruction of the cells (autophagy) in CBD-treated breast cancer cells. A conclusion was that continued investigation into the potential use of CBD as an antineoplastic (anti-cancer) agent was warranted.


end study summary



Pathways mediating the effects of CBD on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis.
Aug 2011 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20859676]

Brief summary:

This team had previously shown that cannabidiol downregulates Id-1 (gene expression) in breast cancer cells which inhibited tumor invasion and metastasis. They now look at how this happens and the pathways used.

Using various assays, they were able to demonstrate those pathways, which inhibited human breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion through modulation of the extracellular signal-regulated pathways. Both of those pathways led to down-regulation of Id-1 expression. The study was also able to demonstrate that CBD up-regulates Id-2.

All of this showed that treatment with CBD significantly reduces primary tumor mass as well as the size and number of lung metastatic foci in two models of metastasis.


end study summary



Antitumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma.
Sep 2006 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16728591]

Brief summary:

The basis for this study was; since THC exhibited anti-tumor activity, do other cannabinoids also possess such anti-tumor qualities?

They investigated the following cannabinoids in pure form; cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichromene, cannabidiol acid (CBDa), and THC acid (THCa). Additionally, they compared the pure cannabinoids against CBD extract and THC extract.

Results indicated that pure CBD was the most potent of the cannabinoids in inhibiting tumor cell growth. The CBD extract was equal in potency to pure CBD.

With regards to potency ranking, cannabigerol and cannabichromene followed in the rank behind cannabidiol.

Both cannabidiol and the cannabidiol-rich extract inhibited the growth of human breast carcinoma (xenograft tumors in mice). Also, growth of tumors were inhibited in thyroid epithelial cells and lung metastases (using rat and mice subjects with cancerous implants).

Experiments indicated that the CBD effect was due to its ability to induce apoptosis through activation of the CB(2) and vanilloid receptors.

Data supported further testing of CBD and its extracts for treatment of cancer.


end study summary



CBD as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells.
Nov 2006 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18025276]

Brief summary:

This breast cancer focused study focused on metastatic breast cancer cells and whether CBD would down-regulate Id-1 (shown as a key regulator of breast cancer metastasis).

It was demonstrated that cannabidiol (CBD) did indeed down-regulate the Id-1 gene expression and showed that CBD represents the first nontoxic exogenous agent that can significantly decrease Id-1 expression in metastatic breast cancer cells leading to the reduction of tumor aggressiveness.


end study summary


CBD and Brain Cancer


Glioma and Glioblastoma are references to brain and spinal cord tumors.



Quantitative Analyses of Synergistic Responses between Cannabidiol and DNA-Damaging Agents on the Proliferation and Viability of Glioblastoma and Neural Progenitor Cells in Culture.
Jan 2017 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27821713]

Brief summary:

As a basis for this study, growing evidence suggested CBD, a non-psychotropic compound, has anti-tumor capabilities, including effectiveness against glioblastomas. Therefore, this study looked at CBD alone and CBD in combination with chemotherapy agents and their effectiveness in fighting human and mice glioblastoma cell lines.

Along with this angle of testing, they also looked at whether CBD had any potential toxic effects within the nervous system, using mice cells in culture.

Results demonstrated that CBD induced a reduction in proliferation and viability of cancer cells in proportion to dose. When both CBD and chemotherapy drugs were used, they showed synergistic anti-proliferating and cell-killing responses in various concentrations.

“Remarkably, antagonistic (opposition) responses occurred at low concentrations in select human GBM (glioblastoma tumor) cell lines and in mouse GBM cells. Our study suggests limited synergistic activity when combining CBD and DNA-damaging agents (chemotherapy drugs) in treating GBM cells” – direct quote.

Additionally, no evidence of any toxic effects of the nervous system cell lines were found.


end study summary



THC and CBD Improved Survival Of Patients With Aggressive Brain Cancer In Controlled Clinical Study.
Feb 2017 | Clinical Trial | [http://www.gwpharm.com/about-us/news/gw-pharmaceuticals-achieves-positive-results-phase-2-proof-concept-study-glioma]

Brief summary:

In a press release from GW Pharmaceuticals, they announced that clinical trials had provided some positive results when using a THC:CBD proprietary blend in combination with dose-intensive temozolomide (a chemotherapy drug).

The trial showed that patients with documented recurrent glioblastomas treated with THC:CBD had an 83 percent one year survival rate compared with 53 percent for patients using the placebo. Average survival for the THC:CBD group was greater than 550 days compared with 369 days in the placebo group.

Keep in mind, they were treating a very aggressive form a brain cancer with very low prognosis for survival.

Professor Susan Short stated, “Moreover, the cannabinoid medicine was generally well tolerated. These promising results are of particular interest as the pharmacology of the THC:CBD product appears to be distinct from existing oncology medications and may offer a unique and possibly synergistic option for future glioma treatment.”


end study summary



Systematic review of the literature on clinical and experimental trials on the antitumor effects of cannabinoids in gliomas.
Jan 2014 | Review Paper | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24142199]

Brief summary:

Research was conducted of all major medical study publishers up through the end of 2012 for the anti-tumoral effects of cannabinoids on gliomas. CBD was not singled out in this review.

Only 35 articles matched the criteria. All studies discovered were experimental except for one involving a clinical trial. In all of the experimental studies, cannabinoids were shown to have antitumoral activity and properties both in vitro and in vivo (in lab dish and in animal subjects).

“The antitumor activity included: antiproliferative effects (cell cycle arrest), decreased viability and cell death by toxicity, apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, as well as antiangiogenic and antimigratory effects. Antitumoral evidence included: reduction in tumor size, antiangiogenic, and antimetastatic effects. “ – direct quote.

“Additionally, most of the studies described that the cannabinoids exercised selective anti-tumoral action in several distinct tumor models. Thereby, normal cells used as controls were not affected. These findings indicate that cannabinoids are promising compounds for the treatment of gliomas.” – direct quote.


end study summary



Cannabidiol down-regulates Id-1 to decrease glioblastoma aggressiveness.
Mar 2013 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23243024]

Brief summary:

This study targeted glioblastoma, the most common form of adult brain tumors, and the regulator Id-1 protein inhibitor. It had been shown that Id-1 played a critical role in controlling the invasiveness of glioblastoma cells and their ability to migrate throughout the brain.

They were able to show that cannabidiol (CBD) downregulates the Id-1 gene expression and therefore decreases the invasiveness of glioblastoma cells and their ability to self renew.


end study summary



CBD inhibits proliferation and invasion in U87-MG and T98G glioma cells through a multitarget effect.
Oct 2013 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24204703]

Brief summary:

CBD was found to inhibit glioma cell line (U87-MG and T98G) proliferation and invasiveness in culture dish and decreased proteins involved in tumor growth and angiogenesis. Results showed that cannabidiol positively affects many antitumor actions and pathways – effective in fighting tumors. This study supported exploitation of CBD as an anti-cancer drug in managing gliomas.


end study summary



Local delivery of cannabinoid-loaded microparticles inhibits tumor growth in a murine xenograft model of glioblastoma multiforme.
Jan 2013 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23349970]

Brief summary:

Given the previous demonstrations of cannabinoids to inhibit tumor growth, this study looked at THC and CBD loaded microparticles as a delivery system in attacking tumor growth, specifically glioma. This method of microencapsulation was shown to facilitate a sustained release of the two cannabinoids for several days.

Treatment with the cannabinoid loaded microparticles was shown to enhance apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and angiogenesis in the glioma tumors. Microparticles administered every 5 days was equivalent to daily administration of straight solution. Testing was done with only CBD, only THC, and combination – with all three showing effectiveness.


end study summary



Triggering of the TRPV2 channel by cannabidiol sensitizes glioblastoma cells to cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents.
Jan 2013 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23079154]

Brief summary:

This study addressed the aggressive behavior and invasiveness of glioblastoma and the resistance to all forms of chemotherapy. They were looking to see if cannabidiol would allow traditional chemotherapies to have more effectiveness by CBD’s role in activating TRPV2 (vanilloid type 2 receptor), which had been shown to overcome chemotherapy resistance.

They were able to demonstrate that CBD activated TRPV2 increased chemo drug uptake and potentiated toxic activity in human glioma cells.


end study summary



Cannabidiol enhances the inhibitory effects of delta9-THC on human glioblastoma cell proliferation and survival.
Jan 2010 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20053780]

Brief summary:

CBD was tested in this study as a modulator of and in combination with THC. It was shown that cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol worked together synergistically to inhibit glioblastoma (tumors that arise from astrocytes—the star-shaped cells that make up the “glue-like,” or supportive tissue of the brain) cell lines.

In combination, they produced induction of a reactive oxygen species and apoptosis. It was noted that these characteristics were not observed in either CBD or THC individually.


end study summary



CBD inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor independent mechanism.
Apr 2005 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15700028]

Brief summary:

CBD was evaluated for its ability to impair the migration of tumor cells. Cannabidiol was shown to cause inhibition of the migration of glioma cells. The results reinforced the evidence supporting the antitumoral abilities and the ability to limit tumor invasion of CBD. It was noted that the mechanism needed to be clarified.


end study summary



Antitumor effects of CBD, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, on human glioma cell lines.
Mar 2004 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14617682]

Brief summary:

The focus of the study was on brain cancer (glioma cells).

Cannabidiol was chosen for this study because cannabinoids had been shown to have anti-tumor properties and CBD was known to be non-psychoactive. The target of the study was human glioma (A glioma is a type of tumor that starts in the glial cells of the brain or the spine) cell lines (a cell culture developed from a single cell and therefore consisting of cells with a uniform genetic makeup).

When CBD was added to the culture produced a dramatic drop of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and viability in the glioma cells.

For the first time, they were able to show that the antiproliferative effect of CBD was correlated to induction of apoptosis. CBD given to mice significantly inhibited growth of implanted human glioma cells. Cannabidiol was able to produce significant anti-tumor activity.


end study summary


CBD and Bladder Cancer



Cannabidiol is used to activate vanilloid receptor to fight bladder cancer.
Aug 2010 | Lab Study | [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20546877]

Brief summary:

The objective of this study was to investigate vanilloid 2 protein (TRPV2) expression in human urothelial carcinoma. To turn the protein “on or off”, CBD was used as an antagonist.

Apoptosis (normal cell death) occurring as a direct result of CBD was confirmed. It was shown that the vanilloid 2 protein may be a tool to treat bladder cancer with the help of cannabidiol (CBD).


end study summary


There are about 3400 studies directly related to CBD and disease states or disorders. CBD and Cancer is the most studies disease state of them all.

All the studies summarized by this author show overwhelming evidence that cannabidiol is very effective at slowing cancer metastosis, increasing cancer cell apoptosis (normal cell death), and reducing inflammation related to cancer.

It makes a person wonder why this natural compound is not strongly studied or adopted into mainstream medicine and why it is not widely available to everyone as a supplement, especially since it has no psychoactive effects at all.

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